Pharmacists to Know
George Francis Archambault
George Archambault’s first love was public health pharmacy. He began his career with the Public Health Service during World War II and continued to be an advocate throughout his life. The federal creation of Medicare and Medicaid in the 1960s sparked his interest in the role of pharmacy services in nursing homes, and he used his position on a number of professional committees, as well as his writing, to stress the importance of improved patient-pharmacist relationships. Considered by many to be the father of consultant pharmacy, George Archambault was a consistent and vocal advocate for expanding the role of pharmacy in health care for all sectors of the American public.
Chauncey Cooper is universally recognized as one of the 20th century’s most important advocates for minority pharmacists. Cooper was named dean of Howard University in 1941, making him the first-ever African American to be appointed to a top administrative role at an American college of pharmacy. At that time, there were less than 20 African Americans graduating each year from American colleges of pharmacy. Cooper was the founder and first president of the National Pharmaceutical Association (NPhA), which was created to provide a welcoming atmosphere for minorities to exchange ideas, build community relationships and eventually enter the pharmacy field.
A pioneering advocate for women in pharmacy, Zada Cooper was one of the first known female faculty members in the U.S. pharmacy field and the first paid staff member of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). During and after her professorship at the College of Pharmacy at the University of Iowa, she worked tirelessly to encourage young women to enroll in pharmacy schools and become active in the profession. She took on leadership roles at a number of committees and organizations dedicated to increasing the role of women in pharmacy. In addition to being one of the founding members of the Women’s Section of the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and the first woman president of Rho Chi Society, she also formed the nation’s first pharmacy sorority – Kappa Epsilon – which has had an important impact on the role of women in the pharmacy profession for over 80 years.
A former U.S. Representative (D-NC), Carl Durham was the architect of two pieces of landmark legislation that had a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry. In 1951, along with Senator Hubert Humphrey (D-MN), he helped usher the Durham-Humphrey Amendment through Congress. This amendment, which established labeling requirements for manufacturers, defined the division between prescription and non-prescription products (over-the-counter medications) and outlined regulations regarding appropriate refill and prescriptions ordered by telephone. He also was responsible for the legislation that formed the Pharmacy Corps, which organized pharmaceutical services in the U.S. army and recognized – for the first time – the professional status of pharmacists providing military service.
Gloria Niemeyer Francke is one of, if not the most, well-known female pharmacists of the 20th century. She received numerous prestigious awards honoring her leadership and impact on the advancement of the practice of hospital pharmacy, both in the U.S. and internationally. She was appointed assistant director of the Division of Hospital Pharmacy at the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) in 1946, and later served as executive secretary for the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists (ASHP) from 1949 to 1960. One of her major contributions during this time was her involvement in the compilation of the Comprehensive Bibliography on Hospital Pharmacy, an important resource for pharmacists that provided information on articles related to hospital pharmacy. She was also involved in the pharmacy sorority Kappa Epsilon, and beginning in 1953, she began speaking at international meetings on behalf of women in pharmacy and promoting their leadership capabilities. In addition to being the first female recipient of the Remington Medal, pharmacy’s highest honor, the APhA has honored her legacy by creating the Gloria Niemeyer Francke Leadership Mentor Award, which recognizes individuals who have promoted and encouraged pharmacists to attain leadership positions in the profession.
Throughout his career, Robert Gibson has worked to gain inclusion for all minorities in the pharmacy profession. In addition to being the first African American to head two national pharmacy organizations (APhA and the AACP), he is also a Fulbright Scholar. Perhaps most notably, he was the first African American recipient of the Remington Medal, pharmacy’s highest honor, which he was awarded in 2006 for his visionary work in promoting diversity in the pharmacy profession.
Edward Kremers pioneered pharmacy graduate school education in the U.S. and was an outspoken advocate for the need to increase educational standards. Having trained under a German immigrant apothecary, Kremers wanted to develop programs in the U.S. that could match the standards of scientific excellence that had already been established by Europeans. He was also opposed to the commercialization of pharmacy – in other words, turning pharmacy into a business – which became a trend that spread throughout the U.S. after the invention of the soda fountain at the turn of the 20th century. A firm believer in the need to challenge the status quo to help pharmacy gain the recognition it deserved, he used his roles as professor and writer as platforms to advocate for pharmaceutical education reform. Largely because of Kremers’ efforts, pharmacy became equal with other professions in demanding rigorous academic standards.
Founder of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and the founding dean of colleges of pharmacy at two public universities, Rufus Lyman was one of the 20th century’s most influential leaders in the field of pharmacy education. He was an outspoken champion of increasing educational standards for pharmaceutical students, and his advocacy efforts were the driving force that led to a four-year high school diploma being a universal prerequisite for admission to any American college of pharmacy. In addition to being a student advocate, he was also a strong supporter of women and minorities in pharmacy.
One of the first female pharmacists in the U.S., Elizabeth Marshall began her pharmacy career as an apprentice in a drugstore founded by her grandfather. In 1805 she took over the drugstore and restored the struggling business into a successful pharmaceutical laboratory, becoming the first woman in Philadelphia to have a successful commercial career. In fact, several of Philadelphia’s most famous pharmacists began their careers working as apprentices under her guidance and leadership.
Nicknamed the “Father of American Pharmacy,” William Procter took on a number of professional roles during his lifetime, including practitioner, teacher, editor, author, and scientist. In addition to writing the first pharmacy textbook published in the U.S., he also wrote more than 500 articles for The American Journal of Pharmacy, the nation’s first pharmacy journal. A staunch advocate for improved professional standards for pharmacy, he was among the first pharmacists associated with the revision of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), essentially a master guide establishing professional standards for common products compounded by pharmacists. The USP was designed to help ensure the quality of products that patients received, and it is still in use today as the official authority on medicines and other health care products.
The Remington Medal, American pharmacy’s most prestigious honor, is named after Joseph Price Remington, who was a distinguished professor, influential writer and editor, and leader in many professional organizations. He was a teacher at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and was known as “the teacher of teachers" for the number of educators and deans he trained during his life. While he was still teaching, Remington purchased a drug store in 1872, which gave him even more insight into the field and led to his publication of Practice of Pharmacy. This eventually became the standard professional text in all American pharmacy schools. In 1897, he became the pharmacy editor of Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, and he also played a leadership role in the revisions of the USP from 1880 until his death. Remington is one of pharmacy’s greatest professional legacies.
Charles Rice was the driving force behind the modernization of the USP from 1880 through 1900. He took the lead in the development of the National Formulary, a resource including standard lists and formulas for physicians to use when prescribing medications that would be compounded by pharmacists. Thanks to Rice, pharmacists were given some of the tools they needed to fulfill their professional duties.
Irving Rubin dedicated his life to promoting the pharmacy profession and his career is highlighted by a number of major accomplishments. He played a large role in adopting a universal symbol for American pharmacy; developing the Oath of a Pharmacist, which every graduating pharmacy student now takes upon graduation; establishing a U.S. Postal Service stamp commemorating the history and significance of pharmacy; and the employment of a full-time registered pharmacist serving legislators in the U.S. Capitol. As editor of Pharmacy Times, he used the publication to promote the expertise that pharmacists could – and must – bring to the health care system.
Mary Munson Runge made history in 1979 when she was elected as the first African American woman to serve as president of the APhA. Runge had already made significant contributions to the field, having opened her own pharmacy after graduating from Xavier University and later being appointed to a number of federal organizations, including the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. An active professional leader and role model, her efforts to increase opportunities and educational standards for women and minorities have had a strong and lasting influence on other pharmacists in the field.
Ella P. Stewart may have been the first African American woman pharmacist to practice with a license. She was the first African American woman to graduate from Pittsburgh University’s College of Pharmacy. Years later, after earning her license and buying a drugstore in Pittsburgh, she moved with her husband, who was also a pharmacist, to Toledo, Ohio, where they opened a pharmacy that would serve as a community center for African Americans. Stewart became a civic leader and was a member of the first group of inductees into the Ohio Women’s Hall of Fame.